4.6.18 Mergers and Acquisitions (INV302)

 
 

Hostile takeovers

A "hostile takeover" allows a suitor to take over a target company whose management is unwilling to agree to a merger or takeover. A takeover is considered "hostile" if the target company's board rejects the offer, but the bidder continues to pursue it, or the bidder makes the offer directly after having announced its firm intention to make an offer. Development of the hostile tender is attributed to Louis Wolfson.

A hostile takeover can be conducted in several ways. A tender offer can be made where the acquiring company makes a public offer at a fixed price above the current market price. Tender offers in the United States are regulated by the Williams Act. An acquiring company can also engage in aproxy fight, whereby it tries to persuade enough shareholders, usually a simple majority, to replace the management with a new one which will approve the takeover. Another method involves quietly purchasing enough stock on the open market, known as a "creeping tender offer", to effect a change in management. In all of these ways, management resists the acquisition, but it is carried out anyway.

The main consequence of a bid being considered hostile is practical rather than legal. If the board of the target cooperates, the bidder can conduct extensive due diligence into the affairs of the target company, providing the bidder with a comprehensive analysis of the target company's finances. In contrast, a hostile bidder will only have more limited, publicly-available information about the target company available, rendering the bidder vulnerable to hidden risks regarding the target company's finances. An additional problem is that takeovers often require loans provided by banks in order to service the offer, but banks are often less willing to back a hostile bidder because of the relative lack of target information which is available to them.

Reference: Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Takeover

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Acquisition vs Merger

 AcquisitionMerger
Introduction (from Wikipedia): When one company takes over another and clearly establishes itself as the new owner. From a legal point of view, the target company ceases to exist, the buyer "swallows" the business and the buyer's stock continues to be traded. The phrase mergers and acquisitions (abbreviated M&A) refers to the aspect of corporate strategy, corporate finance and management dealing with the buying, selling and combining of different companies that can aid, finance, or help a growing comp

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Types of Mergers & Acquisitions by functional roles in market

The M&A process itself is a multifaceted which depends upon the type of merging companies.

- A horizontal merger is usually between two companies in the same business sector. The example of horizontal merger would be if a health cares system buys another health care system. This means that synergy can obtained through many forms including such as; increased market share, cost savings and exploring new market opportunities.

- A vertical merger represents the buying of supplier of a business. In the same example as above if a health care system buys the ambulance services from their service suppliers is an example of vertical buying. The vertical buying is aimed at reducing overhead cost of operations and economy of scale.

- Conglomerate M&A is the third form of M&A process which deals the merger between two irrelevant companies. The example of conglomerate M&A with relevance to above scenario would be if health care system buys a restaurant chain. The objective may be diversification of capital investment.


Arm's length mergers

An arm's length merger is a merger: 1. approved by disinterested directors and 2. approved by disinterested stockholders:

″The two elements are complementary and not substitutes. The first element is important because the directors have the capability to act as effective and active bargaining agents, which disaggregated stockholders do not. But, because bargaining agents are not always effective or faithful, the second element is critical, because it gives the minority stockholders the opportunity to reject their agents' work. Therefore, when a merger with a controlling stockholder was: 1) negotiated and approved by a special committee of independent directors; and 2) conditioned on an affirmative vote of a majority of the minority stockholders, the business judgment standard of review should presumptively apply, and any plaintiff ought to have to plead particularized facts that, if true, support an inference that, despite the facially fair process, the merger was tainted because of fiduciary wrongdoing.″[10]


Strategic Mergers

A Strategic merger usually refers to long term strategic holding of target (Acquired) firm. This type of M&A process aims at creating synergies in the long run by increased market share, broad customer base, and corporate strength of business. A strategic acquirer may also be willing to pay a premium offer to target firm in the outlook of the synergy value created after M&A process.

Reference: Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mergers_and_acquisitions

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Making a Takeover Offer

Tender offer is a corporate finance term denoting a type of takeover bid. The tender offer is a public, open offer or invitation (usually announced in a newspaper advertisement) by a prospective acquirer to all stockholders of a publicly traded corporation (the target corporation) to tender their stock for sale at a specified price during a specified time, subject to the tendering of a minimum and maximum number of shares. In a tender offer, the bidder contacts shareholders directly; the directors of the company may or may not have endorsed the tender offer proposal.

To induce the shareholders of the target company to sell, the acquirer's offer price usually includes a premium over the current market price of the target company's shares. For example, if a target corporation's stock were trading at $10 per share, an acquirer might offer $11.50 per share to shareholders on the condition that 51% of shareholders agree. Cash or securities may be offered to the target company's shareholders, although a tender offer in which securities are offered as consideration is generally referred to as an "exchange offer."

Reference: Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tender_offer

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